Coronavirus DNA Health Assessment

Learn how to optimize your personal defenses against Covid-19

COVID-19 Risk Test and Health Guide

The world's first health report that analyzes your DNA and provides personalized insights about your risk from coronavirus and Covid-19.

Due to the urgency of the rapidly spreading coronavirus pandemic, Sequencing.com is making this report free for a limited time.

 

Interactive examples of the Coronavirus DNA Health Assessment

Example 1

Example 2

 

What's Included In The Coronavirus DNA Health Report

The report analyzes your DNA and provides a personalized health report about your risks from the coronavirus.

Report Section     Information Provided
Risk of Infection     Your genetic risk of becoming infected by the coronavirus; backed by preliminary genetic research studies
       
Severity     Your genetic risk of a severe, potentially life-threatening, infection (if you are infected); backed by preliminary genetic research studies
       
Treatment (non-COVID)    

Your genetic risk of experiencing a harmful reaction to a common medication (oseltamivir phosphate) used to prevent and treat influenza (the flu).

While this medication is not a COVID-19 prevention or treatment, this medication may be used more often during the pandemic because of the similarity of some symptoms between the flu and COVID-19.

       
Non-Genetic Factors     Your non-genetic risk of becoming infected and experiencing a more severe infection
       
Insights     Straightforward information about ways to limit exposure and stay healthy
       
Latest News     stay up-to-date on the latest insights and health guidance

 

Getting Started

This report analyzes your genetic and non-genetic risk factors for COVID-19.

Once your DNA data is stored in your Sequencing.com account, click the app's 'Start' button. You'll receive your report in about 5 minutes.

If your DNA data is not stored in your Sequencing account, you can either import your data from a DNA test you've already taken (such as from 23andMe or AncestryDNA) or you can order one of our DNA tests.

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Our Universal DNA compatibility enables this app to work with raw DNA data from almost any genetic test including 23andMe, AncestryDNA, MyHeritage, FTDNA, and genome sequencing.

Our clinical-grade 30x whole genome sequencing service obtains data on 100% of your genome. It's the world's most comprehensive DNA analysis.

 

Learn More

The blog post Your DNA and COVID-19, written by Dr. Brandon Colby MD, Sequencing.com's Founder, provides an overview of the Coronavirus DNA Health Report including why and how we created the DNA analysis for this report.

This assessment was developed to help the global fight against the coronavirus.

  • The report transforms scientific research into straightforward information you can use today.
  • The genetic analysis uses a wide range of published scientific research (see 'Backed By Science' tab for a list of references).
    • The strain of coronavirus causing the current outbreak, known as SARS-CoV-2, has been found to be very similar to the virus that caused the SARS outbreak in 2003, known as SARS-CoV-1.
    • This report's genetic analysis combines what's known about SARS-CoV-2 with the more extensive genetic research that has been performed over the past 17 years on SARS-CoV-1.
  • Some of the scientific studies included in the DNA analysis for this report are preliminary studies. This means some of the studies have not yet been replicated. Further research may provide different results.
  • Some of the scientific studies only evaluated a specific population. The DNA analysis performed in this report assumes that those studies' findings are valid for all populations. Further research may provide different results.
  • The report includes DNA analysis to determine the risk of harmful side effects with, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which is a medication commonly used to treat the flu.
    • Note: Tamiflu is not a treatment for COVID-19 and this assessment does not provide any information about treatments for COVID-19.
    • Tamiflu is a medication that is used to treat the flu. Use of Tamiflu may increase during flu season or when flu-like symptoms occur more often.
  • We regularly update this report whenever there is new research pertaining to a person's genetic risk of coronavirus infection.
  • The Sequencing Blog and our new Education Center provide additional information about our efforts to help with the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Scientific References

The Coronavirus DNA Health Report is backed by science based on the following references.

The Severe Covid-19 GWAS Group. Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure. N Engl J Med 2020; 383:1522-1534. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2020283

Renieri A. et al. ACE2 variants underlie interindividual variability and susceptibility to COVID-19 in Italian population. medRxiv 2020.04.03. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.03.20047977.

Zhou F. et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet March 11, 2020. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3​.

Wu A. et al. Genome Composition and Divergence of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Originating in China. Cell Host Microbe. pii: S1931-3128(20) 30072-X (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.02.001.

Cai, G. Bulk and Single-Cell Transcriptomics Identify Tobacco-Use Disparity in Lung Gene Expression of ACE2, the Receptor of 2019-nCov. Preprints (2020) 2020020051. doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0051.v3.

Dong E., et al. An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect Dis (2020). pii: S1473-3099(20)30120-1. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1.

Lu, R. et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet (2020). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8.

Cao Y., et al. Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations. Cell Discov 6, 11 (2020). doi: 10.1038/s41421-020-0147-1.

Zhao Y. et al. Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCoV. bioRxiv (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.01.26.919985.

Rothe C. et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N. Engl. J. Med (2020). doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2001468.

Morimoto, K. et al. Analysis of a child who developed abnormal neuropsychiatric symptoms after administration of oseltamivir: a case report. BMC Neurol. 15:130 (2015). doi: 10.1186/s12883-015-0393-2.

Suzuki Y. Identification of oseltamivir resistance among pandemic and seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses by an His275Tyr genotyping assay using the cycling probe method. J Clin Microbiol. 49(1): 125–30 (2011). doi:10.1128/JCM.01401-10.

Zhu X. et al. Genetic variation of the human alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) gene associated with the risk of SARS-CoV infection. PLoS ONE 6:e23730 (2011). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023730.

L’Huillier A. G. et al. ABCB1 polymorphisms and neuropsychiatric adverse events in oseltamivir-treated children during influenza H1N1/09 pandemia. Pharmacogenomics 12(10): 1493-501 (2011). 10.2217/pgs.11.91.

Ching J. C. et al. Significance of the Myxovirus Resistance A (MxA) Gene — 123C>A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Suppressed Interferon β Induction of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 201(12): 1899–908 (2010). doi: 10.1086/652799.

Li H. et al. Polymorphisms in the C-type lectin genes cluster in chromosome 19 and predisposition to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Journal of Medical Genetics 45: 752-8 (2008). doi: 10.1136/jmg.2008.058966.

Tang F. et al. LIL-12 RB1 Genetic Variants Contribute to Human Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Infection among Chinese. PLoS ONE 3(5): e2183 (2008). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002183.

Li C. et al. A nonsynonymous SNP in human cytosolic sialidase in a small Asian population results in reduced enzyme activity: potential link with severe adverse reactions to oseltamivir. Cell Res. 17: 357–62 (2007). doi: 10.1038/cr.2007.27.

Ng M. W., et al. The association of RANTES polymorphism with severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong and Beijing Chinese. BMC Infect Dis. 7:50 (2007). doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-50.

Li W. et al. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2. Virology 367: 367–74 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2007.04.035.

Long, M. Side effects of Tamiflu: clues from an Asian single nucleotide polymorphism. Cell Res. 17: 309–10 (2007). 10.1038/cr.2007.30.

Kelvin Y. K. et al. Association of ICAM3 Genetic Variant with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, The Journal of Infectious Diseases 196(2): 271–80 (2007). doi: 10.1086/518892.

Chan K. Y. K. et al. Reply to 'Lack of support for an association between CLEC4M homozygosity and protection against SARS coronavirus infection'. (Letter) Nature Genet. 39: 694-696 (2007). doi: 10.1038/ng0607-694.

Zhi L. et al. Lack of support for an association between CLEC4M homozygosity and protection against SARS coronavirus infection. Nat Genet. 39: 692–3 (2007). doi: 10.1038/ng0607-692.

Tang N. et al. Lack of support for an association between CLEC4M homozygosity and protection against SARS coronavirus infection. Nat Genet 39: 691–2 (2007). doi: 10.1038/ng0607-691.

Chan V. S. et al. Homozygous L-SIGN (CLEC4M) plays a protective role in SARS coronavirus infection. Nat Genet. 38: 38-46 (2006). doi: 10.1038/ng1698.

He J. et al. Association of SARS susceptibility with single nucleic acid polymorphisms of OAS1 and MxA genes: a case-control study. BMC Infect Dis 6:106 (2006). doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-6-106.

Wei-Ju C. et al. Nasopharyngeal Shedding of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome—Associated Coronavirus Is Associated with Genetic Polymorphisms, Clinical Infectious Diseases. 42(11): 1561-9 (2006). doi: 10.1086/503843.

Imai Y. et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure. Nature 436: 112–6 (2005). doi: 10.1038/nature03712.

Li W. et al. Receptor and viral determinants of SARS-coronavirus adaptation to human ACE2. EMBO J. 24: 1634–43 (2005). doi: 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600640.

W. K. Eddie Ip. et al. Mannose-Binding Lectin in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 191(10):  1697–704 (2005). doi: 10.1086/429631.

Hongxing Z. et al. Association between Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 192(8): 1355–61 (2005). doi: 10.1086/491479.

Wang H. W. et al. [A case-control study on the mxA polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndromes.] Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 26(8): 574-7 (2005). pubmed: 16390004.

Hamano E. et al. Polymorphisms of interferon-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA associated with SARS in the Vietnamese population. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 329: 1234-9 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.101.

Huang K. J. An interferon-gamma-related cytokine storm in SARS patients. J Med Virol. 75(2): 185-94 (2005). doi: 10.1002/jmv.20255.

Gabriella A. et al. Fatal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Is Associated with Multiorgan Involvement by Coronavirus. J Infect Dis. 191(2):193-7 (2005). doi: 10.1086/426870.

Hofmann H. et al. Susceptibility to SARS coronavirus S protein-driven infection correlates with expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and infection can be blocked by soluble receptor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319: 1216–21 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.05.114.

Chan M. H. et al. Serum LD1 isoenzyme and blood lymphocyte subsets as prognostic indicators for severe acute respiratory syndrome. J Intern Med. 255: 512-8 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01323.x.

Leung G. M. et al. SARS-CoV antibody prevalence in all Hong Kong patient contacts. Emerg Infect Dis. 10: 1653-6 (2004). doi: 10.3201/eid1009.040155.

Jones B. M. et al. Prolonged disturbances of in vitro cytokine production in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) treated with ribavirin and steroids. Clin Exp Immunol. 135: 467-73 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2003.02391.x.

Margaret H. L. et al. Association of Human-Leukocyte-Antigen Class I (B*0703) and Class II (DRB1*0301) Genotypes with Susceptibility and Resistance to the Development of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 190(3): 515-8 (2004). doi: 10.1086/421523.

Pavlovic-Lazetic G. M. et al. Bioinformatics analysis of SARS coronavirus genome polymorphism. BMC Bioinformatics 5(65): (2004). doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-5-65.

Stroher U. et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus is inhibited by interferon-alpha. J Infect Dis. 189: 1164-7 (2004). doi: 10.1086/382597.

Jeffers S. A. et al. CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101(44): 15748-53 (2004). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0403812101.

Keyaerts E. et al. Inhibition of SARS-coronavirus infection in vitro by S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, a nitric oxide donor compound. Int J Infect Dis. 8(4): 223-6 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2004.04.012.

Chu C. M. et al. Initial viral load and the outcomes of SARS. CMAJ. 171(11): 1349–52 (2004). doi: 10.1503/cmaj.1040398.

Rainer T. H. et al. The spectrum of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection. Ann Intern Med. 140(8): 614-9 (2004). doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-8-200404200-00008.

Cheung O.Y. et al. The spectrum of pathological changes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Histopathology 45(2): 119-24 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2004.01926.x.

Wong C. K. Plasma inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 136(1): 95–103 (2004). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02415.x.

Cinatl J. et al. Treatment of SARS with human interferons. Lancet 362: 293-4 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13973-6.

Lin M. et al. Association of HLA class I with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. BMC Med Genet. 4: 9 (2003). doi:10.1186/1471-2350-4-9.

Tsui, P. T. et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Clinical Outcome and Prognostic Correlates. Emerg Infect Dis. 9(9): 1064-9 (2003). doi: 10.3201/eid0909.030362.

Li W. et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 426: 450–4 (2003). doi: 10.1038/nature02145.

Cui W. et al. Expression of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 37: 857-9 (2003). doi: 10.1086/378587.

Xu J. et al. Genome organization of the SARS-CoV. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 1(3): 226–35 (2003). doi: 10.1016/s1672-0229(03)01028-3.

Booth C. M. et al. Clinical Features and Short-term Outcomes of 144 Patients With SARS in the Greater Toronto Area. JAMA 289(21): 2801–9 (2003). doi: 10.1001/jama.289.21.JOC30885.

Peiris J. S. et al. Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study. Lancet 361(9371): 1767-72 (2003). doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(03)13412-5.

Tsui P. T. et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: clinical outcome and prognostic correlates. Emerg Infect Dis. 9(9): 1064–9 (2003). doi: 10.3201/eid0909.030362.

Morris J. G. Jr. et al. Emergence of new pathogens as a function of changes in host susceptibility. Emerg Infect Dis. 3: 433-41 (1997). doi: 10.3201/eid0304.970404.

There are three versions of the Coronavirus DNA Health Report.

Free

 

Plus

 

Comprehensive

Free for everyone   Available to Members of Sequencing.com   Included with Sequencing.com's Whole Genome Sequencing test
         
Analysis of your DNA using almost any DNA test   Everything included in the Free version   Everything in the Plus version
         
Personalized report on how your genes may impact your health risk from the coronavirus   Additional insights about your genetic risk from coronavirus   Full genetic analysis for all genes known to impact coronavirus risk
         
Insights about personalized prevention       Includes analysis of changes in genes that are not tested by 23andMe, AncestryDNA, MyHeritage, FamilyTreeDNA or any similar test
         
Updated on a regular basis whenever there's new research pertaining to coronavirus risk        
         
Real-Time Monitoring of the outbreak        
         
Up-to-Date News about coronavirus-related health insights and prevention tips        

Compatible with data from almost all DNA tests and genome sequencing services.

 

Test Compatibility   Format Compatibility   Variant Compatibility   Reference Genome Compatibility
Whole Genome Sequencing   FASTQ and FQ   SNP / SNV
(Single Nucleotide Variants)
  hg38 / GRCh38
Exome Sequencing   FASTA and FA   INDEL
(Insertion Deletion Variants)
  hg19 / GRCh37
Ultimate DNA Test   BAM       hg18 / GRCh36
23andMe   SAM       hg17 / GRCh35
AncestryDNA   CRAM        
MyHeritage   VCF        
Dante Labs   Genome VCF (gVCF and GVCF)        
Nebula Genomics   TXT        
Genes for Good   CSV        
Living DNA   TAB        
HomeDNA   gz and zip compressed files        
FTDNA   almost all other genetic data formats        
Silverberry Genomix            
Toolbox Genomics            
Full Genomes            
Color            
New Amsterdam Genomics            
24Genetics            
Vitagene            
Helix            
Genos            
tellmeGen            
GSA            
Axiom            
almost all other genetic tests

This report is optimized for Sequencing.com's Ultimate DNA Test and our Ultimate Genome Sequencing service.

Your data is protected by our Privacy First policy. You own your data. We never share or share your data, including your DNA data, with anyone.

 

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The genetic analysis and statements that appear in this app, assessment and report have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The Sequencing.com website and all software applications (Apps) that use Sequencing.com's website, as well as Sequencing.com's open Application Programming Interface (API), are not intended to diagnose, monitor, treat, cure, prevent nor alleviate any disease.

The Coronavirus DNA Health Assessment does not provide any information relating to the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of Coronavirus CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.