Find out if you're at genetic risk of one of the most feared outcomes of COVID-19 called 'cytokine storm.'
Cytokine storm is a potentially life-threatening overreaction of the immune system that can be triggered by COVID-19. When a cytokine storm occurs, it usually requires intensive care treatment and may lead to death.
New studies show that out-of-control immune response is a major cause of death among young, previously healthy patients infected with coronavirus.
Some individuals are predisposed to over-activation of the immune system by their own DNA. This app analyzes your DNA for a known genetic risk factor of cytokine storm.
This app generates a personalized report that includes:
This app reports individual genetic risk for severe outcomes of COVID-19 infection caused by high IL-6 levels promoting the cytokine storm condition. Additional coronavirus risk assessment is available with the Coronavirus DNA Health Assessment.
Up to 20 percent of symptomatic coronavirus infected individuals require hospitalization, with 5 percent overall in need for intensive care. While the elderly or individuals with underlying chronic health problems are at a higher risk of mortality, younger and generally healthy people have also succumbed to severe Covid-19 illness.
Studies emerging from China suggest that many patients who died of Covid-19 had an overly-active immune response that lead to their death1. This response, known as “cytokine storm”, is responsible for at least some of the serious and fatal cases among previously healthy, young patients2.
Cytokines are small proteins with a big role in activating elements of the immune system. IL-6 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine crucial for normal function of our immune system. However, upregulation of IL-6 during certain viral infections may promote virus survival and/or exacerbation of clinical disease1. High levels of IL-6 produced in infected lungs lead to fatal organ dysfunction if left untreated 3.
Past experience showed that treating cytokine storms brought about by viral infections and autoimmune diseases have reduced death rates to as low as 27 percent of all expected deaths7. Blockade of the IL-6 cytokine has recently been reported to be in use in China with successful outcomes in individuals receiving this as part of their treatment4-6.
The genetic background of individuals may predispose them to higher IL-6 levels6-12,4. Polymorphisms in the IL-6 and IL-6 receptor genes, carried by 10-30% of the population, influence the magnitudes of common cold viruses5 and susceptibility to rapid decline in lung function6.
Testing genetic markers can significantly predict plasma IL-6 levels7–9. Get GeneInformed and discover your tendency for high IL-6 levels, risk for cytokine storms and proposed therapeutic avenue.
Once your DNA data is stored in your Sequencing.com account, purchase this DNA report and then click the app's 'Start' button. You'll receive your report in about 30 minutes.
If your DNA data is not already stored in your account, you can either import your data from a DNA test you've already taken (such as from 23andMe or AncestryDNA) or you can order one of our DNA tests.
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Balakrishnan, V., Guo, D., Rao, M., Jaber, B., Tighiouart, H., Freeman, R., et al. (2004). Cytokine gene polymorphisms in hemodialysis patients: Association with comorbidity, functionality, and serum albumin. Kidney International, 65(4), 1449-1460.
Chen, X., Zhao, B., Qu, Y., Chen, Y., Xiong, J., Feng, Y., et al. (2020). Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely associated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients. medRxiv, 2020.02.29.20029520.
Cheung, B., Ong, K., Tso, A., Leung, R., Cherny, S., Sham, P., et al. (2011). Relationship of Plasma Interleukin-6 and Its Genetic Variants With Hypertension in Hong Kong Chinese. American Journal of Hypertension, 24(12), 1331-1337.
Chinese Clinical Trial Registery. (n.d.). Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) - The world health organization international clinical trials registered organization registered platform. Retrieved from http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=49409
Doyle, W., Casselbrant, M., Li‐Korotky, H.‐S., Cullen Doyle, A., Lo, C.‐Y., Turner, R., et al. (2010). The Interleukin 6 −174 C/C Genotype Predicts Greater Rhinovirus Illness. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201(2), 199-206.
Hamzic-Mehmedbasic, A. (2016). Inflammatory Cytokines as Risk Factors for Mortality After Acute Cardiac Events. Medical archives (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), 70(4), 252-255.
He, J., Foreman, M., Shumansky, K., Zhang, X., Akhabir, L., Sin, D., et al. (2009). Associations of IL6 polymorphisms with lung function decline and COPD. Thorax, 64(8), 698-704.
Hu H, Ma F, Wei X, F. (n.d.). Coronavirus Fulminant Myocarditis Case Review - American College of Cardiology. Retrieved from https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/ten-points-to-remember/2020/03/...
Jiang, C., Lam, T., Liu, B., Lin, J., Yue, X., Jin, Y., et al. (2010). Interleukin-6 receptor gene polymorphism modulates interleukin-6 levels and the metabolic syndrome: GBCS-CVD. Obesity, 18(10), 1969-1974.
Mehta, P., Mcauley, D., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R., Manson, J., et al. (2020). Correspondence COVID-19 : consider cytokine storm syndromes and. The Lancet, 6736(20), 19-20.
Rafiq, S., Frayling, T., Murray, A., Hurst, A., Stevens, K., Weedon, M., et al. (2007). A common variant of the interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6r) gene increases IL-6r and IL-6 levels, without other inflammatory effects. Genes and Immunity, 8(7), 552-559.
Ramos-Casals, M., Brito-Zerón, P., López-Guillermo, A., Khamashta, M., & Bosch, X. (2014). Adult haemophagocytic syndrome. The Lancet. 383, pp. 1503-1516. Lancet Publishing Group.
Regeneron, Sanofi Launch Clinical Trial of Kevzara as Coronavirus Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.genengnews.com/news/regeneron-sanofi-launch-clinical-trial-o...
Richardson, P., Griffin, I., Tucker, C., Smith, D., Oechsle, O., Phelan, A., et al. (2020). Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. The Lancet, 395(10223), e30-e31. Lancet Publishing Group.
Roch. Roche - Roche initiates Phase III clinical trial of Actemra/RoActemra in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Retrieved from https://www.roche.com/media/releases/med-cor-2020-03-19.htm
Ruan, Q., Yang, K., Wang, W., Jiang, L., & Song, J. (2020). Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive care medicine, 1-3.
Schnabel, R., Lunetta, K., Larson, M., Dupuis, J., Lipinska, I., Rong, J., et al. (2009). The relation of genetic and environmental factors to systemic inflammatory biomarker concentrations. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, 2(3), 229-237.
Shah, T., Zabaneh, D., Gaunt, T., Swerdlow, D., Shah, S., Talmud, P., et al. (2013). Gene-centric analysis identifies variants associated with interleukin-6 levels and shared pathways with other inflammation markers. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, 6(2), 163-170.
Tanaka, T., Narazaki, M., & Kishimoto, T. (2016). Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm. Immunotherapy, 8(8), 959-970. Future Medicine Ltd.
Tyburski, J., Dente, C., Wilson, R., Steffes, C., Devlin, J., Carlin, A., et al. (2001). Differences in arterial and mixed venous IL-6 levels: The lungs as a source of cytokine storm in sepsis. Surgery, 130(4), 748-752.
Van Dongen, J., Jansen, R., Smit, D., Hottenga, J., Mbarek, H., Willemsen, G., et al. (2014). The contribution of the functional IL6R polymorphism rs2228145, eQTLs and other genome-wide SNPs to the heritability of plasma sIL-6R levels. Behavior Genetics, 44(4), 368-382.
Vargas, V., Bonatto, S., Macagnan, F., Feoli, A., Alho, C., Santos, N., et al. (2013). Influence of the 48867A>C (Asp358Ala) IL6R polymorphism on response to a lifestyle modification intervention in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Genetics and Molecular Research, 12(3), 3983-3991.
Velazquez-Salinas, L., Verdugo-Rodriguez, A., Rodriguez, L., & Borca, M. (2019). The Role of Interleukin 6 During Viral Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10(MAY), 1057.
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